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Training

Standard Seminar Modules

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Basic Polymer & PET Chemistry and Physics

Provides an explanation of basic material properties and the inter-relationships of polymer structure to those properties. Discussion of PET copolymer content and effects on properties and performance. Thermal transitions such as crystallization, melting, and glass transition are explained and compared for varying grades of PET. Discussions of the effects of IV and molecular weight and of colorants/additives are also included. This module builds the foundation of material properties, which is used throughout the remainder of the training.

Question and answer/discussion sessions during and after the presentation are viewed as an essential tool for customizing the understanding of the topic to the needs of the attendees.

This session lasts four hours.

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Material Handling/Drying

Improper handling and drying of PET prior to injection molding operations can result in loss of important properties in the final product. Controlling angel hair and fines along with a discussion of the effects of moisture are the central theme of this segment. The function, operation, and application of drying equipment round out a 1-hour program.

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Injection Molding and Melt Processing

A basic understanding of injection molding tools, machines and processing parameters is the goal of this module. Items covered include terminology, melting, degradation, and throughput. Relationships between IV, temperature, crystallization and related topics are developed through graphical presentations of actual data. Plastication and melt flow through the extruder and into the actual cavities is explained via diagrams and cutaways of equipment and tooling.

Acetaldehyde generation is a natural byproduct of the manufacture and processing of PET resins. An understanding of the relationship of the theoretical causes for Acetaldehyde generation to tooling and equipment design and operation is the goal of this segment.

The melt processing section includes time on an injection molding machine actually changing selected process parameters and evaluating predicted results.

Typical time for the basic program is two hours classroom time and one hour in the process lab.

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Package Development

Among the factors that must be considered in the development of a PET packages are Shelf Life (permeability), Acetaldehyde Gain, Volumetric Considerations (Shrinkage, Creep), Package Strength and Thermal Stability. These topics are covered using mathematical equations and graphs as a supplement to practical explanations in a two hour long module.

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Blow Molding Processing

Basic preform design considerations are covered in this session. This includes elements of a typical preform design, stress and strain, and areal stretch and blow up ratios. Addition concepts include: IR absorption spectra and its application, the preform reheat process, and the application of process changes to achieve a variety of blow molding results.

Set up and operation of a Sidel SBO-2/3, bottle blowing, and process troubleshooting fill out this portion of the program. The processing program runs about two hours and includes at least one hour of set-up and process demonstrations on the Sidel.

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Heat Set / Aseptic

This one-hour module is designed to provide a basic understanding of the reasons for the development of heat set and aseptic technologies along with an introduction to the equipment required and the processing techniques used to minimize deformation in heat processed containers. Top load, shrinkage, paneling, and vacuum resistances are covered in light of discussions of crystallinity, cooling, heating, air circulation, and other pertinent considerations.

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Barrier Package Development

As more than 50 barrier solutions are commercially available for plastic bottles through passive and active barrier blends, multilayer and coating technologies, understanding the optimal barrier PET container for your product can be overwhelming. In this two hour segment, PTI's presentation will explore methods, materials, and equipment at the forefront of barrier technologies and demonstrate how the predictive M-RULE® Container Performance Model can be utilized to investigate the most suitable barrier solution for a specific product.

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Quality Assurance and Testing

Understanding how the quality of the package directly impacts performance is critical in today's fast paced environment. Planning and implementing a rigorous yet cost-effective Quality Assurance program can not only improve the process but can actually help reduce the incidents of major quality related issues. This two-hour segment focuses on identifying the parameters that are most important for particular applications and on the methods for evaluating them to establish container performance. Dimensional measurement, moisture analysis, thermal stability, and carbonation retention are a few of the test procedures that are highlighted.

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PET Recycling

PET is the premier recyclable plastic, which is one of the reasons for its position as material of choice for so many applications. The status of recycling in the US and around the world is presented along with videos of a typical plastic recycling operation in the US. The program generally runs for an hour. An optional evening visit to a PET repelletizing facility is offered with the program.

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